Bonneville Power Administration
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Two-stage Heat Pumps for Cold Climates
Field Test #2 of Cold-Climate Heat Pumps with Staged Compressor
Field tests found these Hallowell cold-climate heat pumps were not superior to a standard air-source heat pump. Coefficients of performance for the McCall, Idaho unit were well below industry standard. The product installed in Portland performed with a Heating Seasonal Performance Factor (HSPF) of about 7, which is slightly above the pre-2006 federal minimum standard for air-source heat pumps. Poor performance is explained by product design, faulty outdoor temperature sensors, and sizing of equipment relative to heating load.
Field Test #1 of Cold-Climate Heat Pumps with Staged Compressor
The results of this study show the multi-capacity air-source heat pump is capable of meeting all the heating needs of homes without the use of resistance elements, even in cold-climates. However, the cold-climate heat pumps in this study did not perform as efficiently as standard air-source heat pumps. With a wide network of installers and refinements to the product, it is possible that a cold-climate heat pump could be installed without reliance on electric resistance elements for backup heating.
2004 – 2006
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