See load shaping.
A structure built to provide flood control, irrigation, and/or power generation. Some have storage reservoirs. Also see reservoir.
A dam that serves more than one purpose, such as Grand Coulee Dam. Purposes can be flood control, navigation, irrigation, power generation, recreation, and fish and wildlife.
A dam with limited storage capacity, such as Bonneville Dam. Hydroelectric generating plants at these dams (run-of-river plants) operate based only on available streamflow and some short-term storage (hourly, daily, or weekly).
A dam with a reservoir that serves to store water from runoff for later, controlled release, such as Libby Dam.
The percentage of fish that get from one side of a dam to the other alive.
A device to connect a computer terminal to different computer systems through a single physical connection.
The use of natural sunlight as a replacement for some or all of the indoor electric lighting in buildings.
See direct current.
1) The principal and interest on outstanding bonds. 2) The retirement of bonds according to schedules in each bond issue, plus any reserve and contingency requirements reduced by investment income on various reserve accounts. 3) Sometimes used to refer to principal and interest on unpaid appropriations.
1) In general, a ratio that measures the adequacy of a business’s cash flow to cover debt service costs, both principal and interest. Used to assess the ability to generate sufficient cash flow to make payments due on outstanding debt. 2) At BPA, sometimes used to measure the level of assurance BPA has that it can meet in particular the planned payments to the U.S. Treasury for Federal investment in regional hydroelectric projects or can meet third party financial obligations.
1) A unit used to describe the strength or intensity of wave-propagated phenomena such as sound or transmitted signals. Technically, a logarithmic scale so used. 2) One dB equals the least sound level detectable by the human ear, while 70 dB is equivalent to busy traffic and 150 dB is equal to a nearby jet taking off.
A rate structure that prices successive blocks of kilowatthour use or kilowatt demand at decreasing per-unit prices; reverse of inverted rates.
In terms of a resource, to remove from service permanently.
A generating resource owned by a BPA customer and used to serve its firm load; these resources are declared for a rolling seven-year period in utility power sales contracts with BPA.
A utility that has elected to exercise its right under section 10 of the Residential Purchase and Sale Agreement that sets its average system cost equal to the priority firm (PF) exchange rate when its average system cost would otherwise fall below the PF exchange rate; a utility thereby avoids making exchange program payments to BPA.
Dead. Refers to current-carrying parts that can be energized but are at present free from any electrical voltage. Said of a transmission line or piece of equipment when disconnecting switches are open and the line or equipment is isolated from the system.
See discretionary resource.
1) The non-payment of Federal interest in the year it is due. 2) In BPA financial planning, refers to BPA not meeting annual U.S. Treasury payments in full.
The amount of capital expenditures that BPA has financed from revenues, which borrowing authority has been received and BPA can issue revenue bonds to the U.S. Treasury.
A utility that has fewer resources than it needs to meet its loads.
The number of degrees that the average outdoor temperature falls below or exceeds a base value (usually 18 degrees C, or 65 degrees F) in a given period of time. Considered a reasonably good index of heating and cooling requirements of buildings. One F degree day equals 0.556 C degree day.
Each degree the mean daily temperature is above the base value.
Each degree the mean daily temperature is below the basic value.
A State (or other governmental entity) that has applied for and received authority to administer, within its territory, its State regulatory program as the Federal program requires under a particular Federal statute.
A connection of the windings of a three-phase transformer or three single-phase transformers making up a three-phase bank that are in series to form a closed path. Delta connections may also be used for three-phase shunt reactor banks, shunt capacitor banks, or generator windings.
1) In a consumer context, the amount of electricity used. 2) In a public utility context, the rate at which electric energy is delivered to or by a system over any designated period. Expressed in kilowatts or megawatts, or in kilovoltamperes or megavoltamperes. 3) At BPA, the amount of electric energy, in kilowatts or megawatts, needed at any given time to meet a BPA customer’s or total BPA system load.
Any demand that occurs simultaneously with any other demand. Also the sum of any set of coincident demands.
The moment of system peak load, occurring when the sum of all meters is the highest, although some meters may be below their eventual peak.
The amount of energy delivered or used in one hour. The technical unit for integrated demand is kWh/h, often simplified to kW. See demand and maximum demand.
The greatest demand of a load occurring during a specified time period.
The sum of the individual maximum demands regardless of time of occurrence within a specified period.
The highest demand for power during a stated period of time.
The ratio of the maximum demand of a system, or part of a system, to the total connected load of the system or part of the system under consideration.
The strategies that focus on influencing when and how customers use electricity, with an emphasis on reducing or leveling load peaks, such as conservation measures and rate incentives for shifting peak loads, and energy storage schemes for reducing, redistributing, shifting, or shaping electrical loads.
An energy resource such as conservation that is based on how electricity is used, not produced.
See U.S. Department of Energy.
1) In accounting and many ratemaking applications, a systematic means of recognizing or allocating the non-cash expense of a long-lived asset to a particular year. 2) In land acquisition usage, a loss of value of real estate caused by deterioration, obsolescence, or both and can affect personal or real property.
A Columbia River hydroelectric system operation manual prepared by fish and wildlife agencies and Indian tribes for fish passage related to the mainstem Columbia River.
1) In environmental usage, to remove water from a solution or suspension containing wastes in order to concentrate the wastes and dispose of them. 2) In engineering, to divert or remove water from a stream or river channel in order to construct or rebuild dams and related hydroelectric facilities; or the process of removing water from the scroll case of a hydro turbine so the generator can be used as a synchronous condenser to control system voltage.
Insulating material, such as air or glass, that has a high resistance to the conductance of electric current; a non-conductor.
The potential (voltage) gradient at which electric failure or breakdown occurs. The dielectric strength of a material is an indication of how good an insulator a material or gas is.
A device installed in a substation that records the waveform resulting from a fault on a transmission line, such as a fault caused by a break in the line.
A device that converts digital data, in one of many digital formats, to analog.
Any of a family of compounds known chemically as dibenzo-p-dioxins, created in breakdown of some chlorinated hydrocarbons. Tests on laboratory animals indicate that dioxins are some of the more toxic man-made chemicals known.
An electric current that flows in a single direction and whose magnitude does not vary, or varies only slowly.
Ether the positive or negative conductors of a direct-current transmission system.
Direct-service industries and also Federal agencies that buy electricity directly from BPA for their own use.
direct-service industrial, or 7(c), rates
Industrial customers, primarily aluminum smelters, that buy power directly from BPA at relatively high voltages.
A method for extracting individual utility loads from a regional forecast.
Accurate and complete information, as provided in an official statement which is material to a securities transaction, must be made available to purchasers or prospective purchasers. This includes any information which a potential investor would be likely to consider important in making investment decisions.
A power system switch, manually or motor operated, used for changing connections in a circuit (open or close) or for isolating a circuit or piece of equipment from the source of power. Also called a disconnect switch.
An interest rate that reflects the value of money over time. In comparing alternatives for a decision, a discount rate is applied to make different monetary stream flows equivalent, in terms of a present value or a levelized value.
An interest rate that includes inflation.
An interest rate adjusted to remove the effect of inflation.
Deferrable resource. A resource whose acquisition can be deferred without cost or availability penalties.
A room located in a system control center (for transmission or distribution) that contains the display and control devices used by dispatchers to monitor and control the power system.
1) Individual at a control center who monitor and control a power system. 2) At BPA, dispatcher responsibilities include: operating the automatic generation control equipment to regulate the loading of the generators in the Federal power plants to help maintain scheduled system frequency and the scheduled power interchange with other utilities; issuing electrical clearances on the BPA system for safe maintenance and repair of equipment; isolating system trouble and dispatching of maintenance forces to repair facilities and restore service; maintaining transmission voltage schedules.
To substitute one generating resource for another, such as to shut down a coal plant for a time and supply the load instead with nonfirm hydroelectric energy.
1) The shutdown of a high-cost generating facility when low-cost energy is available. 2) The substitution of less expensive energy (usually hydroelectric energy transmitted from the Pacific Northwest or Canada) for more expensive thermal energy produced in California. Such substitution means that thermal plants may reduce or shut down their production, saving money and often reducing air pollution.
Final placement or destruction of hazardous materials — toxic, radioactive, or other wastes; pesticides or other chemicals; and polluted soils —at Federally approved sites.
Amount of chemicals normally occurring as gases, such as nitrogen and oxygen, that are held in solution in water, expressed in units such as milligrams of the gas per liter of liquid. Dissolved oxygen is vital to fish and other aquatic life.
The transport of electricity to ultimate use points, such as homes and businesses, from a source of generation or from one or more substations.
Costs faced by a utility for transporting power from a transmission substation to consumers.
BPA administrative centers, more numerous and more local in focus than Area offices. Field offices for BPA maintenance crews are also called District offices.
Any occurrence that adversely affects normal power flow in a system, including a fault or loss of an interconnection carrying a large block of power.
An instrument used to produce a record of the time-varying components of the power system.
A dam built to turn water aside from its usual course, such as for irrigation. See dam.
1) In resource planning, refers to having a variety or mix of resources. 2) The differences among individual electric loads resulting from the fact that the maximum demands of consumers do not all occur at the same time (load diversity). See seasonal diversity.
See U.S. Department of Energy.
See tower configurations.
A triangular plate installed in a suspension or dead-end assembly to distribute the load to two strings of insulators.
In a hydro system, the additional amount of power that can be generated at dams downstream from, and due to the construction of, a storage dam.
The survival of a juvenile salmon or steelhead from the time it enters the mainstem Snake or Columbia River, until it gets below Bonneville Dam.
The release of water from a storage reservoir, usually measured in feet of reservoir elevation.
A device that carries the water away from the turbine runner to the tailrace in a hydropower system.
The distance that the water surface of a reservoir is lowered from a given elevation as water is released for power generation, flood control, irrigation, or other use. Also refers to the act of lowering reservoir levels.
Direct-service industry. See direct-service industrial customers.
See demand-side management.
1) Tubes through which heated or cooled air flows. 2) Enclosures through which cabling in a substation passes.