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Definitions - E
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See emissivity.
See environmental assessment.
The right, privilege, or interest obtained by BPA through negotiated contract or condemnation to construct, maintain, and operate transmission facilities within a right-of-way.
In land acquisition usage, a written document conveying one-party's real property rights, privileges, or interests.
In land acquisition usage, a right to cross an area, with no rights to build a road. Also called travel only.
The 500-kV intertie with Montana Power Company to integrate generation from the Colstrip Power Plant into the BPA system and connect to other systems to the east. Also referred to as Montana Intertie.
See energy content curve.
See forecast.
See energy.
See energy efficiency ratio.
1) As applied to devices or systems such as motors or power plants, the ratio of output to input, expressed in percent. 2) As applied to conservation, energy savings as by weatherization. 3) As applied to economic analysis, maximizing output for a given cost or achieving a given output at a minimum cost. See cost-effective.
See extra-high voltage.
See environmental impact statement.
The degree to which consumer demand for a product or service responds to a change in price. When there is no perceptible response, demand is said to be inelastic.
A factor that describes the resistance of a material. The higher the conductivity, the lower the resistance.
Fields of force caused by electric voltage and current around the electric wire or conductor when an electric transmission line or any electrical wiring is in operation. Magnetic fields exist only when current is flowing. Electric fields are present in electrical appliances and cords whenever they are plugged in.
The invisible lines of electrical force caused by voltage and measured in volts-per-meter (V/m) or kilovolts-per-meter (kV/m). The field from all typical home sources averages around 10 V/m or less while the field at the edge of the right-of-way for a 500-kV line is about 2 kV/m.
1) The physical phenomena caused by the presence and motion of electrons and other charged particles.  2) Electric current used or regarded as a source of power.
A term used to define the amount of electric power used by consumers in various sectors, such as residential, commercial, industrial, and irrigation sectors.
A nationwide research organization sponsored by 680 utilities and dedicated to discovering, developing, and delivering new technologies for electric power generation and transmission and for demand-side management.
Total power loss in an electric system, consisting of transmission, transformation, and distribution losses between sources of generation and ultimate consumer.
All businesses or enterprises engaged in the generation, transmission, and/or distribution of electricity for use by the consumer. May be publicly or privately owned.
Of or pertaining to the magnetic forces produced in a surrounding medium by the flow of current in a conductor.
A wave characterized by variations of electric and magnetic fields (for ex-ample, short wavelengths such as X-rays through the ultraviolet, visible and infrared regions to long-er wavelengths such as radar and radio waves).
A technology requiring relatively large amounts of electricity, such as aluminum smelting, where no other form of energy may be substituted for electricity.
Voltage phenomenon related to stationary, electrically charged bodies.
An air pollution control device used to remove particulates from an air stream by establishing an electric charge on the particles which then are attracted to an oppositely charged collector. Used especially in coal plants and refuse-fired electric generation facilities.
See costs.
See remedial action scheme.
A series of backup safety systems in a nuclear reactor designed to dump thousands of gallons of cooling water into the reactor, thus preventing a core meltdown in the event the normal core cooling system fails.
An unscheduled patrol, by airplane, helicopter, four-wheel-drive vehicle, or foot, of a particular transmission line to locate trouble and its cause.
The capability of installed equipment for a short time interval.
See electric and magnetic fields.
The authority of the government (local, State, or Federal) to take private property for public use upon making just compensation.
The maximum amount of air polluting discharge (such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, particulates), legally allowed from a single mobile or stationary source.
The relative ability of a surface to emit heat by radiation.
Under the Endangered Species Act animals, birds, fish, plants, or other living organisms whose existence is determined to be in danger throughout all or a significant portion of its range because its habitat is threatened with destruction, drastic modification, or severe curtailment, or because of overexploitation, disease, predation, or other factors.
A 1973 Federal law, amended in 1978 and 1982, to protect troubled species from extinction. The National Marine Fisheries Service and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service decide whether to list species as threatened or endangered. Federal agencies must avoid jeopardy to and aid the recovery of listed species. Similar responsibilities apply to non-Federal entities.
A study to determine the nature and extent of contamination at a site on the National Priorities List and the risks posed to public health or the environment. Conducted by a State or the Environmental Protection Agency when a legal action is to be taken to direct potentially responsible parties to clean up a site or pay for the cleanup. Supplements a remedial investigation.
A category of electricity use, such as heating, cooling, ventilation, hot water, and lights.
Someone who uses electricity to run equipment or appliances, such as for space heating and cooling, ventilation, refrigeration, and lighting.
A final, discrete use of electrical energy, such as lighting, space heating and cooling, refrigeration, and office equipment.
The collected information from devices installed to measure the amount of electricity consumed for various end uses.
See consumer.
See sector.
Refers to the time when a completed facility is placed in service or put into operation.
1) That which does or is able to do work. 2) As commonly used in the electric utility industry, electric energy means kilowatthours, or joules (the level of power delivered multiplied by the amount of time that the level of power is delivered). Used interchangeably with although technically not a synonym of power.
Energy delivered at BPA’s option to industrial customers instead of restricting industrial firm power (power that is delivered to industries on a contract basis) and that may be subject to later return if needed to meet BPA’s firm loads. Advance energy improves the availability of service and results in greater sales revenues to BPA.
Energy that can be generated on a partially loaded generating unit or purchases of energy at a price less than decremental cost (cost of operating a power plant).
1) Energy considered assurable to the customer to meet all agreed upon portions of the customer’s load requirements over a defined period. 2) On BPA’s system, electric energy produced under critical water conditions.
An amount of firm energy that is in excess of firm contractual commitments.
Under the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement, energy exchanged between a reservoir owner and the owner of a downstream project. The amount of energy from the reservoir owner must be equivalent to the amount the downstream project owner could have produced if the reservoir owner had not exercised its agreement right to retain water above the energy content curve.
Energy received by one utility system from another, usually in exchange for energy delivered to another utility at another time or place. Distinguished from a direct purchase or sale, although accumulated energy balances are sometimes settled in cash.
Energy available for sale in varying amounts depending on season and water conditions. Generally sold on an interruptible (non-guaranteed) basis. Interruptible energy. Often used interchangeably with secondary energy and surplus energy.
Energy supplied during periods of relatively low system demand.
Energy supplied during periods of relatively high system demand.
1) The amount of energy consumed during a peak load period. 2) The maximum energy produced by a generation facility over a fixed period of time.
Energy sold to or exchanged with customers who require additional energy to meet firm loads at the height of some peak load periods.
The excess above firm energy to be furnished to a customer when, as, and if available.
1) The energy generated that is beyond the immediate needs of the producing system. 2) At BPA, firm or nonfirm electric energy generated at Federal hydroelectric projects that would otherwise be wasted if there was not a market for the energy.
1) The energy that can be generated and guaranteed to be provided, but is excess to demand. 2) At BPA, generally available when BPA’s planned firm resource capability exceeds its planned firm load sunder the Coordination Agreement; when BPA acquires firm resources prior to the beginning of an operating year which are not accounted for in the Coordination planning process and are excess to BPA’s planned firm loads; when BPA’s firm loads underrun planned levels, leaving additional firm power available; or when BPA purchases energy within an operating year to cover future risks, then those risks dissipate.
An excess of interruptible energy that is available due to water conditions better than critical.
An examination of residential dwellings, commercial buildings, or industrial facilities to show how energy use can be made more efficient.
See conservation.
A specific action or installed device that saves energy.
A reliable sample of electric energy usage for a specific purpose over a specified period of time.
An operating guide to the use of storage water from reservoirs operated by parties to the Pacific Northwest Coordination Agreement. Gives 95 percent confidence of reservoir refill. Also see variable energy content curve.
Costs (such as fuel) that are related to and vary with energy consumption or production.
Changes, such as in commercial lighting, industrial processes, and irrigation practices, and introduction of more efficient equipment and household appliances to decrease the amount of electricity needed.
A numerical indicator of the relative efficiency of energy usage among appliances, determined by dividing the Btu per hour output by the energy input in watts. The higher the EER, the greater the efficiency.
See exchange agreement.
In a power system, the demand summed over a period of time such as a month or a year.
See losses.
See meter.
The process in which one utility provides energy to another utility, allowing that utility to store water in its reservoir that is later used to generate energy then returned to the original utility.
A condition in which a utility system can supply more energy than is required to serve the loads of that system. The energy may be nonfirm, due to water conditions, or firm, due to excess generating capability.
See rates.
See value.
1) The drawing of fish and other aquatic organisms into tubes or tunnels carrying cooling water into thermal plants or into penstocks and turbines at a hydroelectric plant; increases mortality rates for those organisms. 2) Air captured within concrete prior to curing. 3) Incorporation of clean air into a pollutant plume by eddy diffusion.
The sum of all external conditions affecting the life, development, survival, and well-being of an organism.
A document that evaluates the possible environmental effects of a Federal agency’s proposed action and provides sufficient evidence to determine whether an environmental impact statement (EIS) or a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) is warranted. An EA is one means of compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA).
An independent assessment of the current status of a party’s environmental compliance, policies, practices, and controls, with regard to environmental requirements.
1) The economic value of a change in the environment. 2) The environmental damage or enhancement remaining after building, operating, or decommissioning an energy resource.
Scheduling of power plant operation or intertie access in the order of increasing damage to the environment, with the least environmentally damaging first.
A document that examines the possible environmental effects of a Federal agency’s proposed actions. A tool for decision making, it describes the positive and negative effects of proposed actions and lists alternative actions.
An authorization, license, or equivalent control document issued by EPA or an approved State agency to implement the requirements of an environmental regulation, such as a permit to operate a facility that may generate harmful emissions.
See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
The process by which an organization identifies and evaluates its environmental risks so that it can effectively manage the risks.
One part of an environmental risk analysis which assesses the magnitude of potential harm.
The decisions a business makes based on environmental risk analysis.
See U.S. Environmental Protection Agency.
See Electric Power Research Institute.
1) The wearing away of land surface by wind or water that occurs naturally from weather or runoff but can be intensified by land-clearing practices related to such activities as farming, residential or industrial development, road building, or timber-cutting. 2) A material wear mechanism resulting from suspended particles in a flow stream of water or other fluid.
See Endangered Species Act.
The rate of price increase for a specific good or service. Also see inflation.
See exchange transmission credit agreement.
Energy transmission (ET) rate. See rates.
See residential exchange.
A contract BPA has with a utility that establishes an exchange of energy rather than a direct sale of energy. Often used with utilities in other regions to take advantage of seasonal differences in peak loads. Exchanges have economic benefits, and they sometimes have environmental advantages such as allowing for seasonal fish passage needs and lessening the use of air-polluting thermal plants.
Under a capacity/energy exchange contract, the energy that must be generated or purchased by a utility as compensation for capacity service that was provided by another utility.
Any resource purchased by BPA under the residential exchange established by section 5(c) of the Pacific Northwest Electric Power Planning and Conservation Act.
An agreement through which participating utilities receive benefits for only transmission-related costs.
A source of direct current used to provide the field current (magnetic current) for a generator.
See conductor.
Measures the relationship between revenue and operating expenses. Factor resulting from dividing total revenues by total operating expenses. Shows effects of pricing and decisions on business.
The costs of goods and services consumed or used during the current fiscal year. Also see costs.
Costs that remain relatively constant in total as the level of activity changes.
Costs that are assigned through an allocation methodology or process.
All the expenses resulting from the ongoing operations of BPA. Net interest expense is excluded and reported separately to allow the financial statement user to compute the interest coverage ratio.
Sales of electricity from the Pacific Northwest to another region.
In risk management, the possibility of loss in risk assessment contact with the chemical.
A fault in a power system that occurs outside or beyond the zone of protection of a specific relay.
In resource planning, the value of what is lost or damaged when power generation adversely affects the environment.
Refers to transmission lines with voltage levels higher than high voltage (HV) but lower than ultra-high voltage (UHV) levels, and generally considered to range from the 345 kV class through the 800 kV class of voltages. Also see high voltage, ultra-high voltage.
Outside the Pacific Northwest.
Any of some 400 chemicals identified by the Environmental Protection Agency on the basis of toxicity, and listed under Title III of the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act.